Preparations - mixtures or solutions composed of two or more substances.
Labelling - All indications appear on a special label or directly on the printing or engraving or relief.
The label assumes an important role in giving us a lot of information (synthetic) on the chemical and physical characteristics of the substance and / or preparation. It also provides the first signs regarding potential risks of substance and / or product.
More specifically: the label takes account of all the potential risks associated with the normal handling and use of the substances in the manner in which they are marketed;
- The name of the chemical substance.
- The name and headquarters of the manufacturer.
- The symbols of danger (T, X, Xi, XN, C, E, F, and O) and its pictograms.
- The risk phrases (R-phrases), safety advice (S phrases).
Similarly other substances have been defined that involve more specific risks such as toxic for reproduction (harmful to the normal development of the fetus) and mutagenic (harmful to the development of normal cells).
The right is the freedom to choose the type of exercise that it intends to make and to have a structure for the implementation of its activities laboratory, it should be remembered that the teacher should also assess the feasibility of the exercise in advance and, if the difficulties are difficult to be solved, be available to substitute the type of exercise.
The explicit duty of the teacher is to give students information on the operations taking place in the laboratory and the specific rules relating to security exercises that will take place and the risks related to them.
He has the right to be informed on the risks and safety standards and intrinsic behavior of the laboratory. Furthermore, it must be made aware of the equipment and individual protection measures enabled in the laboratories.
The student has a duty to inform themselves about the risks and the obligation to meet safety standards and provided all norms of behavior.
MAJOR RULES OF CONDUCT TO BE MET IN THE CHEMICAL LABORATORIES
• Before using any chemical product must acquire information about its characteristics through security ballot: risk phrases, safety advice. Follow the directions given to the handling, storage and disposal.
• To reduce the risk of initiation, development of fire and explosion, to eliminate the risk of exposure to hazardous substances, chemical reactions with the development of dangerous gases or vapours, chromatography "in the column" using organic solvents, the use equipment that can release into the smoke, gases or vapours (eg rotavapor retrieval system without solvents), or racking levy solvents, especially birds, for quantities strictly necessary for the performance of laboratory activities must be made exclusively inside the chemistry hood (confinement in a delimited and adequately ventilated). For use in safety hood, please refer to paragraph 2.
• Do not place in the laboratory substances and objects to work. (For example coats, duvets, backpacks, etc.).
• Do not leave not identifiable material in the laboratory and in the hood.
• All containers must be properly labelled so you can recognize anytime content.
• Do not leave without control chemical reactions or apparatus in operation and, where appropriate, ensure the effectiveness of security systems.
• In laboratory is forbidden to eat, drink and smoke.
• In laboratory must always be worn the shirts.
• The laboratory must be kept clean and tidy.
• Do not ever work alone, especially outside official working.
• At the end of the activities promptly remove from the work plans glassware and equipment used.
• Collect, separate and delete properly chemical waste, solid and liquid produced in the laboratory, it is forbidden to download or abandon them in the sewer.
• Avoid over-crowding in the laboratories.
• Report to the responsible laboratory accident or unsafe conditions.
•The head of the laboratory must properly instruct the staff is concerned with his own laboratory, including students, trainees, fellows and Ph.D. students, in relation to the activities that they must perform, so that all are informed about:
possible risks in the workplace and risks arising from the performance of different tasks;
possible damage resulting from the use of dangerous substances, including gases and / or dangerous equipment;
measures of prevention and protection to be implemented in each specific situation.
• The head of the laboratory must establish a CPS identifying the actual or potential risks for each stage of processing and showing behaviour which must be undertaken to eliminate or minimize these risks.
• The head of the laboratory must ensure the proper application of the measures of prevention and protection by all those who frequent the laboratory, with particular attention to the students.
• First of all must be adopted collective security means (for example, business at risk just inside the hood, tapping the source, ventilation, etc..). When the collective means of protection not be able to eliminate the risk of exposure to hazardous substances, it is also necessary to use the devices Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) appropriate for each type of activity and for each level of risk (for example, to gloves lose, goggles, masks protective footwear). The PPE should be used properly and kept in a good state of repair.
• Where possible, we must adopt methods that can reduce the presence of dangerous concentrations of flammable substances and chemically unstable.
• Avoid the presence of sources of ignition that could lead to fires and explosions (for example, you are prohibited from using bunsen burners or any other free flame, in the presence of flammable substances and outside the chemical hood).
• The electrically powered equipment used in laboratories, both inside and outside the chemistry hood, must have a "safe electrical system," that is, with special protections, designed and installed in relation to the types of substances used in operating procedures. Fundamental requirement of the plant, should be to reduce the risk of ignition, both during normal operation, both because of a malfunction.
In the case of ordinary operation, the causes of ignition can be, for example: the electric arc product during opening and closing of a switch; achieve surface temperatures dangerous for Joule effect. In case of failure (for example, following a short circuit) can unleash sparks, can form an electrical arc or you can determine up-temperature, with enough power to trigger an explosive atmosphere.
• The equipment should ensure the control of the operating conditions.
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